Communicable Diseases Print E-mail
Written by Judy Hoffman, District Nurse   

INFECTION

INFECTIVE MATERIAL

INCUBATION PERIOD

COMMENTS

Amebiasis (Entamoeba histolytica)

Feces

2-4 weeks

Case: exclude during acute illness, until treated and until stools are free of oocysts.

Contacts: symptomatic contacts should be excluded until stools are screened for oocysts.

Campylobacter enteritis

Feces; contaminated food or water

1-7 days

Case: exclude until 48 hours of effective therapy or until asymptomatic, whichever is shorter.

Contacts: exclusion not required.

Chickenpox(varicella)

Infected exudate; respiratory secretions

10-21 days

Case: exclude until lesions are dry and crusted. Shingles lesions must be kept covered.

Contacts: exclude immunosuppressed children during outbreak.

Shingles
Blisters
Very long timeframe- years
Case: exclude only if lesions cannot be covered

Contacts: exclusion not required.

Conjunctivitis, Bacterial

Purulent exudate

24-72 hours

Case: do not exclude unless child meets other criteria for exclusion.

Contacts: exclusion not required.

Conjunctivitis, Viral (adenovirus, etc.)

Purulent exudate

12-72 hours

Case: do not exclude unless child meets criteria for exclusion.

Contacts:
exclusion not required.

Cytomegalovirus

Infected urine and saliva

weeks to months

Case: exclusion not required. See Notif. Guidelines regarding pregnant contacts.
Contacts:
exclusion not required.

Diarrhea (increase of frequency and change of consistency in bowel movement)

Feces

1-3 days

Case: exclude until symptoms resolve.

Contacts: exclusion not required.

Fifth disease (erythema infectiosum)

Respiratory secretions

4-14 days (usually 12-14 days)

Case: exclusion not required. See Notification Guidelines regarding pregnant contacts.

Contacts: exclusion not required.

German measles *

(rubella)

Respiratory secretions

14-23 days (usually 16-18 days)

Case: exclude for 7 days after onset of rash. See Notification Guidelines for pregnant contacts.

Contacts: those who are pregnant should be notified-
unimmunized should be excluded until outbreak is over.

Giardia lamblia

Feces; contaminated food or water

1-4 weeks

Case: exclude until asymptomatic.

Contacts: no exclusion required.

Gingivostomatitis (herpes simplex virus)

Infected secretions

2-14 days

Case: do not exclude unless child has mouth ulcers and uncontrolled drooling.

Contacts: recurrent cold sores need not be excluded.

Haemophilus influenzae

Respiratory secretions

2-14 days

Case: exclude when child meets other criteria for exclusion.

Contacts: seek physician’s advice concerning prophylaxis.

Hand-foot-mouth disease (Coxsackie A16)

Feces: respiratory secretions

3-6 days

Case: exclude when child meets other criteria for exclusion.

Contacts: exclusion not required.

Hepatitis A

Feces, contaminated food or water

15-50 days (usually 25-30 days)

Case: exclude until 7 days after onset of symptoms and symptomatically able to participate in general activity.

Contacts: prophylaxis should be considered for staff and children.

Hepatitis B *

Infected saliva or blood

6 weeks- 6 months

Case: weeping sores that cannot be covered, open wounds or weeping tissue fluid.

Contacts: no exclusion required.

HIV/AIDS

See District Policy #1415

Impetigo contagiosa (Staphylococcus)
MRSA or MSSA

Lesion secretions

unknown

Case: no exclusion unless sores cannot be covered.

Contacts: no exclusion required.

Infectious mononucleosis

Saliva

5-7 weeks

Case: exclude until symptomatically able to tolerate general activity.

Contacts: no exclusion required.

Influenza

Respiratory secretions

1-3 days

Case: exclude until symptomatically able to tolerate general activity.

Contacts: no exclusion required. monitor for symptoms.

Lice (pediculosis)

Infested area

Approx. 7-10 days after eggs hatch

no exclusion. school nurse will contact family and help monitor student.

Lyme Disease
Infected ticks
3-31 days after bite
no exclusion necessary.

Measles (rubeola)

Respiratory secretions

6-21 days (usually 10-12 days)

Case: exclude until 5 days after appearance of rash. See Notification Guidelines regarding pregnant contacts.

Contacts: Check immunization status. Exclude immediately on signs of prodrome.

Meningitis (Meningococcal)

Respiratory secretions

2-10 days

Case: exclude during acute illness and until treated. See Notification Guidelines regarding pregnant contacts.

Contacts: seek physician’s advice concerning prophylaxis.

Mononucleosis (Mono)

See Infectious Mononucleosis

Mumps (infectious parotitis)

Respiratory secretions

12-25 days

Case: exclude for 9 days from onset of swelling; less if swelling subsides.

Contacts: susceptible contacts should seek physician’s advice.

Molluscum Contagiosum
Person to person
2-7 weeks
no exclusion necessary

Pharyngitis (nonspecific

Respiratory secretions

12-72 hours

Case: exclude only if child has fever or is unable to participate in general activities.

Contacts: exclusion not required

Pharyngitis (streptococcal)

Respiratory secretions

1-4 days

Case: exclude until 24 hours after start of antibiotic therapy.

Contacts: exclusion not required.

Pinworms (Enterobius vermicularis)

Feces, contaminated fomites., clothing, house dust, etc.

one – two months

Case: no exclusion necessary

Contacts: exclusion not required.

Respiratory infections (upper respiratory infections, colds, bronchitis)

Respiratory secretions

12-72 hours

Case: exclude only if child meets other exclusion criteria.

Contacts: exclusion not required.

Ringworm

(See Tinea capitis)

Rotavirus

Feces

1-3 days

Case: exclude until asymptomatic.

Contacts: no exclusion required

Salmonellosis

Feces; contaminated food.

6-72 hours

Case: exclude during acute illness, usually 5-7 days, or until three successive stool cultures are negative.

Contacts: stool cultures not indicated in absence of symptoms.

Scabies

Infested areas

2-6 weeks; 1-4 days after repeat exposure

Case: exclude until treated.

Contacts: direct inspection of body

Streptococcus (including scarlet fever, impetigo, vaginal strep)

Repiratory secretions

1-4 days

Case: exclude for 24 hours of effective therapy. Contacts: exclusion not required.

Shigellosis

Feces

1-7 days (usually 1-2 days)

Case: exclude for 5 days of antibiotics or until two successive stool cultures are negative

Contacts: stool cultures indicated only in suspected outbreak.

Tinea capitis corporis, cruris, and pedis (Ringworm, Athlete’s foot, Jock itch.

Imperfect fungi

3-5 days for microscopic infection

2-3 weeks for clinical manifestation

Case: exclude until treated.

Tuberculosis *

Respiratory secretions

2-10 weeks

Case: exclude at the end of the day until treatment is started.

Whooping Cough (pertussis) *

Respiratory secretions

7-21 days (usually 7-10 days)

Case: exclude until 5 days of effective therapy.

Contacts: seek physician’s advice concerning prophylactic treatment.

Yersiniosis*

Feces; contaminated food or water.

2-11 days (usually 3-7 days)

Case: exclude during acute illness.

Contacts: exclusion not required.

* denotes disease that must be reported to the Health Dept

Last Updated ( Wednesday, 09 February 2011 )
 
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